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Thus, subjunctive is used. Some of the phrases and verbs that require sentences to have subjunctive formation include:.
To form the first-person singular subjunctive, first take the present indicative first-person singular 'yo' form of a verb.
Then, replace the ending 'o' with the "opposite ending". This is done in the following way: if the verb is an -er or -ir verb such as comer, poder, vivir, or compartir, replace the ending 'o' with an 'a' i.
If the verb is an -ar verb such as hablar or caminar replace the ending 'o' with an 'e' i. This forms the first-person conjugation. The other conjugations work similarly, as follows:.
Since the vos forms are derived from vosotros the following would be expected and used in Central America. Today, the two forms of the imperfect subjunctive are largely interchangeable.
The use of one or the other is largely a matter of personal taste and dialect. Many only use the -ra forms in speech, but vary between the two in writing.
Many may spontaneously use either, or even prefer the rarer -se forms. The imperfect subjunctive is formed for basically the same reasons as the present subjunctive, but is used for other tenses and time frames.
In Spanish, as in other Romance languages, all nouns belong to one of two genders, "masculine" or "feminine", and many adjectives change their form to agree in gender with the noun they modify.
For most nouns that refer to persons, grammatical gender matches biological gender. Spanish generally uses adjectives in a similar way to English and most other Indo-European languages.
However, there are three key differences between English and Spanish adjectives. Spanish uses determiners in a similar way to English.
Common determiners include el "the" , un "a" , este "this" , mucho "much, a lot" , alguno "some" , and so on. Spanish pronouns fall into the same broad categories as English pronouns do: personal , demonstrative , interrogative , relative , and possessive.
The personal pronouns—those that vary in form according to whether they represent the first, second, or third grammatical person —include a variety of second-person forms that differ not only according to number singular or plural , but also according to formality or the social relation between speakers.
Additionally, these second-person forms vary according to geographical region. Because the form of a conjugated verb reflects the person and number of its subject, subject pronouns are usually omitted, except where they are felt to be needed for emphasis or disambiguation.
Spanish adverbs work much like their English counterparts, e. To form adverbs from adjectives, the adverbial suffix -mente is generally added to the feminine singular of the adjective, whether or not it differs from the masculine singular.
The adjectives bueno "good" and malo "bad" have irregular adverbial forms: bien "well" and mal "badly" , respectively.
As in English, some adverbs are identical to their adjectival counterparts. Thus words such as temprano "early" , lento "slow" , and hondo "deep" can also mean "early" as in English, as in "He arrived early" "slowly", and "deeply", respectively.
In series of consecutive adverbs that would each end in -mente on their own, the -mente is dropped from all but the final adverb, and the others are left as if they were adjectives in the feminine singular.
There are also a wide variety of adverbial phrases in Spanish, such as a menudo "often" , en todas partes "everywhere" , de repente "suddenly" , por fin "finally" , and sin embargo "however, nevertheless".
Spanish has a relatively large number of prepositions , and does not use postpositions. The following list is traditionally cited:.
Recently, two new prepositions have been added: durante and mediante , usually placed at the end to preserve the list which is usually learnt by heart by Spanish students.
Prepositions in Spanish do not change a verb's meaning as they do in English. For example, to translate "run out of water", "run up a bill", "run down a pedestrian", and "run in a thief" into Spanish requires completely different verbs, and not simply the use of correr "run" plus the corresponding Spanish preposition.
This is more due to the nature of English phrasal verbs rather than an inherent function of Spanish verbs or prepositions.
The Spanish conjunctions y 'and' and o 'or' alter their form in both spoken and written language to e and u respectively when followed by an identical vowel sound.
Thus, padre e hijo 'father and son' , Fernando e Isabel 'Ferdinand and Isabella' , sujeto u objeto 'subject or object' , vertical u horizontal 'vertical or horizontal'.
The change does not take place before the h i of a diphthong, as in acero y hierro 'steel and iron'. Spanish unmarked word order for affirmative declarative sentences is subject-verb-object SVO ; however, as in other Romance languages, in practice, word order is more variable, with topicalization and focus being the primary factors in the selection of a particular order.
Verb-subject-object VSO , verb-object-subject VOS , and object-verb-subject OVS are also relatively common, while other orders are very uncommon outside of poetry.
Although bare VSO and VOS are somewhat rare in declarative independent clauses, they are quite common in sentences in which something other than the subject or direct object functions as the focus.
In many dependent clauses , the verb is placed before the subject and thus often VSO or VOS to avoid placing the verb in final position:. A sentence in which the direct object is the topic or "theme" old information , while the subject is part of the comment, or "rheme" new information , often assumes OVS order.
In this case the direct object noun phrase is supplemented with the appropriate direct object pronoun; for example:. Because subject pronouns are often dropped , one will often see sentences with a verb and direct object but no explicitly stated subject.
A cleft sentence is one formed with the copular verb generally with a dummy pronoun like "it" as its subject , plus a word that "cleaves" the sentence, plus a subordinate clause.
They are often used to put emphasis on a part of the sentence. Here are some examples of English sentences and their cleft versions:. Spanish does not usually employ such a structure in simple sentences.
The translations of sentences like these can be readily analyzed as being normal sentences containing relative pronouns.
Spanish is capable of expressing such concepts without a special cleft structure thanks to its flexible word order. Whereas the English sentence uses a special structure, the Spanish one does not.
The verb fue has no dummy subject, and the pronoun el que is not a cleaver but a nominalising relative pronoun meaning "the [male] one that".
Provided we respect the parings of "el que" and "las llaves", we can play with the word order of the Spanish sentence without affecting its structure — although each permutation would, to a native speaker, give a subtly different shading of emphasis.
As can be seen from the translations, if this word order is chosen, English stops using the cleft structure there is no more dummy "it" and a nominalising relative is used instead of the cleaving word whilst in Spanish no words have changed.
Note that it is ungrammatical to try to use just que to cleave such sentences as in English, but using quien in singular or quienes in plural is grammatical.
When prepositions come into play, things become complicated. Structures unambiguously identifiable as cleft sentences are used.
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